IPv6 only network with IPv4 access (DNS64/NAT64)

Continuing the theme of building my own ISP I started looking at running a IPv6 only network.

As IPv4 addresses become increasingly scarce it won’t be possible to hand out publicly routeable addresses to every user. The alternatives are things like CGNAT but that has a bunch of problems.

On the other hand the default suggested IPv6 allocation per user is a /48 subnet (which is 65,5536 /64 subnets each containing 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 addresses) which should be more than enough for anybody. More and more services slowly are making them selves available via IPv6.

So rather than run a dual stack IPv4/IPv6 network with a double NAT’d (at the home router and again at the ISP’s CGNAT link to the rest of the internet ) IPv4 address, we can run a pure IPv6 ISP and offer access to IPv4 via a NAT64 gateways to allow access to those services that are still IPv4 only.

DNS64

This is the part that converts IPv4 addresses to IPv6 addresses.

The local device looking to connect makes a DNS request for the hostname of the remote device. If there is no native AAAA (IPv6 address) entry for the hostname, the DNS64 server will generate one based on converting the IPv4 address to hex and prepending a IPv6 prefix. The prefix can be anything with at least /96 (allowing enough room for all IPv4 addresses) but there is a pre-defined address range of 64:ff9b::/96.

So if looking up the remote hostname returns 192.168.1.5 then the mapped IPv6 address would be 64:ff9b::c0a8:0105 (192.168.1.5 -> c0.a8.01.05 in hex)

As of version 9.8 of bind support for DN64 is built in and configured by adding the following:

...
dns64 64:ff9b::/96 {
  clients { any; };
  mapped { !10/8; any;};
  break-dnssec yes;
};
...

Running your own means you can control who can access the server (using the clients directive and control which IP address ranges are mapped or excluded).

All this IP address mapping does break DNSSEC but since most clients rely on their recursive DNS servers to validate DNSSEC record rather than doing it directly this is less of a problem.

There are also a number of public DNS servers that support DNS64 including one run by Google.

To test you can use dig and point to the DNS64 server. e.g. to get a IPv6 mapped address for www.bbc.co.uk (212.58.233.254 & 212.58.237.254)

$ dig @2001:4860:4860::6464 -t AAAA www.bbc.co.uk

; <<>> DiG 9.11.5-P4-5.1-Raspbian <<>> @2001:4860:4860::6464 -t AAAA www.bbc.co.uk
; (1 server found)
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 1043
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 3, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 512
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.bbc.co.uk.			IN	AAAA

;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.bbc.co.uk.		235	IN	CNAME	www.bbc.net.uk.
www.bbc.net.uk.		285	IN	AAAA	64:ff9b::d43a:edfe
www.bbc.net.uk.		285	IN	AAAA	64:ff9b::d43a:e9fe

;; Query time: 133 msec
;; SERVER: 2001:4860:4860::6464#53(2001:4860:4860::6464)
;; WHEN: Mon Feb 03 21:40:50 GMT 2020
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 124

We can see that 212.58.233.254 is d43ae9fe in hex and has been added to the 64:ff9b::/96 prefix to make 64:ff9b::d43a:e9fe

NAT64

This is the part that actually does the mapping between the IPv6 address of the initiating device and the IPv4 address of the target device.

There are a few different implementations of NAT64 for Linux

I decided to give Jool a go first based on a presentation I found.

I had to build Jool from source, but this wasn’t particularly tricky and once installed I followed the Stateful NAT64 instructions. There were 2 bits missing from this that caused a few problems.

The first was because my host machine has multiple IPv4 addresses I needed to add the right address to the `pool4`. When adding the the address you also need to specify a range of ports to use and these need to be excluded from ephemeral local port range.

The ephemeral range can be between 1024 and 65535 and you can check what the current range is set to with sysctrl

$ sysctl net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 32768	60999

For a proper deployment this range needs reducing so that you can commit enough ports for all the NAT64 connections that will pass through the gateway. You can also add multiple IPv4 addresses.

Quick aside: The whole point of this exercise is to reduce the number of publicly routable IPv4 addresses that we need. To make this work we are always going to need some, but we will share a small number at one point at the edge of the network to be used as the NAT64 egress point, but as more and more services move over to supporting IPv6 this number will decrease.

Because I’m only playing at the moment, I’m just going to use the 61000-65535 range and leave the ephemeral ports alone. I will still be able to host 4500 connections.

To make starting it all easier I wrote a short script that

  • Loads the module
  • Enables IPv4 and IPv6 routing
  • Sets up jool with the default IPv6 prefix
  • Adds the iptables entries to intercept the packets
  • Adds the IPv4 output address to the jool config with the port range for TCP, UDP and ICMP
#!/bin/sh
modprobe jool

sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding=1
sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1

jool instance add "example" --iptables  --pool6 64:ff9b::/96

ip6tables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -j JOOL --instance "example"
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -j JOOL --instance "example"

jool -i "example" pool4 add -i 192.168.1.94 61000-65535
jool -i "example" pool4 add -t 192.168.1.94 61000-65535
jool -i "example" pool4 add -u 192.168.1.94 61000-65535

Putting it together

To make it all work I need to set the DNS server handed out to my ISP customers point to the DNS64 instance and to make sure that 64:ff9b::/96 gets routed via the gateway machine.

To test I pinged www.bbc.co.uk

$ ping6 -c 2 www.bbc.co.uk
PING www.bbc.co.uk (64:ff9b::d43a:e9fe) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 64:ff9b::d43a:e9fe: icmp_seq=1 ttl=54 time=18.1 ms
64 bytes from 64:ff9b::d43a:e9fe: icmp_seq=2 ttl=54 time=23.0 ms

--- 64:ff9b::d43a:e9fe ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 3ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 18.059/20.539/23.019/2.480 ms
Network diagram
Network layout

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