More MQTT VirtualHost Proxying

A really quick follow up to the earlier post about using TLS SNI to host multiple MQTT brokers on a single IP address.

In the previous post I used nginx to do the routing, but I have also worked out that the required input to Traefik would be.

The static config file looks like this

global:
  checkNewVersion: false
  sendAnonymousUsage: false
entryPoints:
  mqtts:
    address: ":1883"
api:
  dashboard: true
  insecure: true
providers:
  file:
    filename: config.yml
    directory: /config
    watch: true

And the dynamic config like this
tcp:
  services:
    test1:
      loadBalancer:
        servers:
          - address: "192.168.1.1:1883"
    test2:
      loadBalancer:
        servers:
          - address: "192.168.1.2:1883"
  routers:
    test1:
      entryPoints:
        - "mqtts"
      rule: "HostSNI(`test1.example.com`)"
      service: test1
      tls: {}
    test2:
      entryPoints:
        - "mqtts"
      rule: "HostSNI(`test2.example.com`)"
      service: test2
      tls: {}

tls:
  certificates:
    - certFile: /certs/test1-chain.crt
      keyFile: /certs/test1.key
    - certFile: /certs/test2-chain.crt
      keyFile: /certs/test2.key

Of course all the dymaic stuff can be generated via any of the Traefik providers.

Hostname Based Proxying with MQTT

An interesting question came up on Stack Overflow recently that I suggested a hypothetical answer for how to do hostname based proxying for MQTT.

In this post I’ll explore how to actually implement that hypothetical solution.

History

HTTP added the ability to do hostname based proxying when it instroduced the Host header in HTTP v1.1. This meant that a single IP address could be used for many sites and the server would decide which content to serve based on the his header. Front end reverse proxies (e.g. nginx) can use the same header to decide which backend server to forward the traffic to.

This works well until we need encrypt the traffic to the HTTP server using SSL/TLS where the headers are encrypted. The solution to this is to use the SNI header in the TLS handshake, this tells the server which hostname the client is trying to connect to. The front end proxy can then either use this information to find the right local copy of the certificate/key for that site if it’s terminating the encryption at the frontend or it can forward the whole connection directly to the correct backend server.

MQTT

Since the SNI header is in the initial TLS handshake and is nothing to do with the underlying protocol it can be used for ay protocol, in this case MQTT. This measn if we set up a frontend proxy that uses SNI to pick the correct backend server to connect to.

Here is a nginx configuration file that proxies for 2 different MQTT brokers based on the hostname the client uses to connect. It is doing the TLS termination at the proxy before forwarding the clear version to the backend.

user  nginx;
worker_processes  auto;

error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log warn;
pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;

events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}

stream {  
  map $ssl_server_name $targetBackend {
    test1.example.com  192.168.1.1:1883;
    test2.example.com  192.168.1.2:1883;
  }

  map $ssl_server_name $targetCert {
    test1.example.com /certs/test1-chain.crt;
    test2.example.com /certs/test2-chain.crt;
  }

  map $ssl_server_name $targetCertKey {
    test1.example.com /certs/test1.key;
    test2.example.com /certs/test2.key;
  }
  
  server {
    listen 1883         ssl; 
    ssl_protocols       TLSv1.2;
    ssl_certificate     $targetCert;
    ssl_certificate_key $targetCertKey;
        
    proxy_connect_timeout 1s;
    proxy_pass $targetBackend;
  } 
}

Assuming the the DNS entries for test1.example.com and test2.example.com both point to the host running nginx then we can test this with the mosquitto_sub command as follows

$ mosquitto_sub -v -h test1.example.com -t test --cafile ./ca-certs.pem

This will be proxied to the broker running on 192.168.1.1, where as

$ mosquitto_sub -v -h test2.example.com -t test --cafile ./ca-certs.pem

will be proxied to the broker on 192.168.1.2.

Cavets

The main drawback with this approach is that it requires that all the clients connect using TLS, but this is not a huge problem as nearly all devices are capable of this now and for any internet facing service it should be the default anyway.

Acknowledgment

How to do this was mainly informed by the following Gist

Depolying a TTN LoRa Gateway

I’ve been meaning to get round to this ever since the Pi Supply Kickstarter delivered my LoRa Gateway HAT and the LoRa Node pHAT.

They have been sat in their boxes waiting until I had some spare time (and I’d finally finished moving a few things around to free up a spare Pi).

LoRa Gateway on a Pi 3

LoRa is a long range, low bandwidth radio system that uses the unlicensed spectrum. When combined with the higher level LoRaWAN protocol it makes great IoT platform for low power devices that want to send low volumes of data in places where there is no WiFi coverage and can’t justify the cost of a cellular connection.

LoRaWAN allows you to deploy a collection of Gateway devices that can act as receivers for a large number of deployed devices. These gateways then forward on messages to central point for processing.

The Things Network

A group called The Things Network run a LoRaWAN deployment. They are aiming for as large a coverage area as possible. To do this they allow users to deploy their own gateways and join these to the network. By joining the network you get to use everybody elses gateways in exchange for letting other people use yours.

Setting up the Gateway

This was particularly easy. I just had to download an image and flash it to a SD card. Stick that into the pi along with an ethernet cable and some power.

After the pi boots up you point your browser at http://iotloragateway.local and fill in a couple of values generated when I registered the gateway on the TTN site and that was it. The gateway is now up and running and ready to send/receive packets from any devices in range.

Testing

In order to test the gateway I need to set up a Pi Zero with the LoRa Node pHAT. This was a little trickier, but not much.

Fist I had to disable the Linux serial console, this can be done using the raspi-config command. I also had to add dtoverlay=pi3-miniuart-bt /boot/config.txt.

That was all that was needed to get the hardware configured, as for the software there is a rak811 python package that supplies the api and utilities to work with pHAT.

I now needed to declare an application on The Things Network site, this is how messages get routed to be processes. Taking the values for this application I could now write the following helloWorld.py

#!/usr/bin/env python3
from rak811 import Mode, Rak811

lora = Rak811()
lora.hard_reset()
lora.mode = Mode.LoRaWan
lora.band = 'EU868'
lora.set_config(app_eui='xxxxxxxxx',
                app_key='xxxxxxxxxxxx')
lora.join_otaa()
lora.dr = 5
lora.send('Hello world')
lora.close()

Which can then be seen arriving in The Things Network console.

Data arriving and being displayed in The Things Network console.

And I can subscribe directly to that data feed via MQTT:

$ mosquitto_sub -h eu.thethings.network -u 'lora-app1-hardill-me-uk' -P 'xxxxxxxxx' -v -t '+/devices/+/up'
{
  "app_id": "lora-app1-hardill-me-uk",
  "dev_id": "test-lora-pi-zero",
  "hardware_serial": "323833356E387901",
  "port": 1,
  "counter": 0,
  "is_retry": true,
  "payload_raw": "SGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=",
  "metadata": {
    "time": "2019-08-10T15:45:07.568449769Z",
    "frequency": 867.5,
    "modulation": "LORA",
    "data_rate": "SF7BW125",
    "airtime": 61696000,
    "coding_rate": "4/5",
    "gateways": [
      {
        "gtw_id": "lora-gw1-hardill-me-uk",
        "gtw_trusted": true,
        "timestamp": 910757708,
        "time": "2019-08-10T15:45:07Z",
        "channel": 5,
        "rssi": -91,
        "snr": 7.75,
        "rf_chain": 0,
        "latitude": 51.678905,
        "longitude": -2.3549008,
        "location_source": "registry"
      }
    ]
  }
}

Next Steps

First up will be to get a better antenna for the gateway and to move the whole things up in the attic, from there it should get a good view north out towards the River Severn. After that I want to get a small battery powered LoRa/GPS board, like a TTGO T-Beam and ride round on my bike to get a feel for what the range/coverage actually is.

I’ll also be keeping an eye on the stats from the gateway to see if anybody else near by is deploying TTN LoRaWAN devices.

DIY IoT button

I’ve been looking for a project for a bunch of ESP-8266 ESP-01 boards I’ve had kicking around for a while.

The following describes a simple button that when pushed publishes a MQTT message that I can subscribe to with Node-RED to control different tasks.

It’s been done many times before, but I wanted to have a go at building my own IoT button.

Software

The code is pretty simple:

  • The MQTT PubSubClient (Thank’s Nick)
  • Some hard coded WiFi and MQTT Broker details
  • The setup function which connects to the network
  • The reconnect function that connects to the MQTT broker and publishes the message
  • The loop function which flashes the LED to show success then go into deep sleep

In order to get the best battery life you want the ESP8266 to be in deep sleep mode for as much as possible, so for this reason the loop function sends the message to signify the button has been pushed then indefinitely enters the deepest sleep state possible. This means the loop function will only run once on start up.

#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include <PubSubClient.h>

#define ESP8266_LED 1

const char* ssid = "WifiName";
const char* passwd = "GoodPassword";
const char* broker = "192.168.1.114";

WiFiClient espClient;
PubSubClient client(espClient);

void setup() {

  Serial.begin(115200);
  delay(10);
  
  pinMode(ESP8266_LED, OUTPUT);

  WiFi.hostname("Button1");
  WiFi.begin(ssid, passwd);

  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    delay(500);
    Serial.print(".");
  }

  Serial.println("");
  Serial.println("WiFi connected");  
  Serial.println("IP address: ");
  Serial.println(WiFi.localIP());
  client.setServer(broker, 1883);
  reconnect();
}

void reconnect() {
  while(!client.connected()) {
    if (client.connect("button1")){
      client.publish("button1", "press");
    } else {
      delay(5000);
    }
  }
}

void loop() {

  if (client.connected()) {
    reconnect();
  }
  client.loop();
  
  // put your main code here, to run repeatedly:
  digitalWrite(ESP8266_LED, HIGH);
  delay(1000);
  digitalWrite(ESP8266_LED, LOW);
  delay(1000);
  ESP.deepSleep(0);
}

Hardware

By using a momentary push button wake the ESP-01 I bridged reset pin to ground the chip resets each time it’s pushed, this wakes it from the deep sleep state and runs the all the code, then drops back into the sleep state.

Button diagram

  • The green line is the Chip enable
  • The blue line is the the links reset to ground via the push button

Now I had the basic circuit and code working I needed to pick a power supply. The ESP-01 needs a 3.3v supply and most people seem to opt for using a small LiPo cell. A single cell has a nominal fully charged voltage of 3.7v which is probably close enough to use directly with the ESP-01, but the problem is you normally need to add a circuit to cut them out before the voltage gets too low as they discharge to prevent permanently damage them. You would normally add a charging circuit to allow recharging from a USB source.

This wasn’t what I was looking for, I wanted to use off the shelf batteries so I went looking for a solution using AAA batteries. The board will run directly from a fresh set of 2 AAA batteries, but the voltage can quickly drop too low. To help with this I found a part from Pololu that would take an input between 0.5v and 5v and generate a constant 3.3v. This meant that even as the batteries discharged I should be able to continue to run the device.

At first things didn’t look to work, because converter was not supplying enough current for the ESP-01 at start up, to get round this I added a 100uF capacitor across the outputs of the regulator. I don’t really know how properly to size this capacitor so I basically made a guess.

The final step was to use the soldering iron to remove the red power LED from the board as this was consuming way more power than the rest of the system.

Prototype

Next Steps

  • Make the MQTT topic based on the unique id of the ESP-01 so it isn’t hard coded
  • Look at adding Access Point mode to allow configuration of the WiFi details if the device can not connect to the existing configuration
  • Design a circuit board to hold the voltage converter, capacitor, button and the ESP-01
  • Create a case to hold it all
  • Work out just how long a set of batteries will last

Fist pass TRÅDFRI MQTT Bridge

I’ve been working on integrating the new IKEA TRÅDFRI Lights into my Home Automation system. I’d really like a native NodeJS system so I can plug it directly into Node-RED, but I’ve not found a working CoAP over DTLS setup just yet.

So in the mean time I’ve been working on a very basic MQTT to CoAP client bridge in Java using the Eclipse Californium library.

It still needs some work, but here is the first pass:

package uk.me.hardill.coap2mqtt;

import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.net.URI;
import java.net.URISyntaxException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.logging.Level;

import org.eclipse.californium.core.CaliforniumLogger;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.CoapClient;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.CoapHandler;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.CoapResponse;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.Utils;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.coap.MediaTypeRegistry;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.network.CoapEndpoint;
import org.eclipse.californium.core.network.config.NetworkConfig;
import org.eclipse.californium.scandium.DTLSConnector;
import org.eclipse.californium.scandium.ScandiumLogger;
import org.eclipse.californium.scandium.config.DtlsConnectorConfig;
import org.eclipse.californium.scandium.dtls.pskstore.StaticPskStore;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.IMqttDeliveryToken;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttCallback;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttClient;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttException;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttMessage;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.persist.MemoryPersistence;
import org.json.JSONArray;
import org.json.JSONObject;

/**
 * @author hardillb
 *
 */
public class Main {
  
  static {
    CaliforniumLogger.disableLogging();
    ScandiumLogger.disable();
//    ScandiumLogger.initialize();
//    ScandiumLogger.setLevel(Level.FINE);
  }
  
  private DTLSConnector dtlsConnector;
  private MqttClient mqttClient;
  private CoapEndpoint endPoint;
  
  private String ip;
  
  private HashMap<String, Integer> name2id = new HashMap<>();
  
  Main(String psk, String ip) {
    this.ip = ip;
    DtlsConnectorConfig.Builder builder = new DtlsConnectorConfig.Builder(new InetSocketAddress(0));
    builder.setPskStore(new StaticPskStore("", psk.getBytes()));
    dtlsConnector = new DTLSConnector(builder.build());
    endPoint = new CoapEndpoint(dtlsConnector, NetworkConfig.getStandard());
    
    MemoryPersistence persistence = new MemoryPersistence();
    try {
      mqttClient = new MqttClient("tcp://localhost", MqttClient.generateClientId(), persistence);
      mqttClient.connect();
      mqttClient.setCallback(new MqttCallback() {
        
        @Override
        public void messageArrived(String topic, MqttMessage message) throws Exception {
          // TODO Auto-generated method stub
          System.out.println(topic + " " + message.toString());
          String parts[] = topic.split("/");
          int id = name2id.get(parts[1]);
          System.out.println(id);
          String command = parts[3];
          System.out.println(command);
          try{
            JSONObject json = new JSONObject("{\"9001\":\"Living Room Light\",\"9020\":1491515804,\"9002\":1491158817,\"9003\":65537,\"9054\":0,\"5750\":2,\"3\":{\"0\":\"IKEA of Sweden\",\"1\":\"TRADFRI bulb E27 opal 1000lm\",\"2\":\"\",\"3\":\"1.1.1.0-5.7.2.0\",\"6\":1},\"9019\":1,\"3311\":[{\"5850\":1,\"5851\":10,\"9003\":0}]}");
            JSONObject settings = json.getJSONArray("3311").getJSONObject(0);
            if (command.equals("dim")) {
              settings.put("5851", Integer.parseInt(message.toString()));
            } else if (command.equals("on")) {
              if (message.toString().equals("0")) {
                settings.put("5850", 0);
                settings.put("5851", 0);
              } else {
                settings.put("5850", 1);
                settings.put("5851", 128);
              }
            }
            String payload = json.toString();
            Main.this.set("coaps://" + ip + "//15001/" + id, payload);
          } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
          }
        }
        
        @Override
        public void deliveryComplete(IMqttDeliveryToken token) {
          // TODO Auto-generated method stub
        }
        
        @Override
        public void connectionLost(Throwable cause) {
          // TODO Auto-generated method stub
        }
      });
      mqttClient.subscribe("TRÅDFRI/+/control/+");
    } catch (MqttException e) {
      // TODO Auto-generated catch block
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
  
  private void discover() {
    try {
      URI uri = new URI("coaps://" + ip + "//15001");
      CoapClient client = new CoapClient(uri);
      client.setEndpoint(endPoint);
      CoapResponse response = client.get();
      JSONArray array = new JSONArray(response.getResponseText());
      for (int i=0; i<array.length(); i++) {
        String devUri = "coaps://"+ ip + "//15001/" + array.getInt(i);
        this.watch(devUri);
      }
      client.shutdown();
    } catch (URISyntaxException e) {
      // TODO Auto-generated catch block
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
  
  private void set(String uriString, String payload) {
    System.out.println("payload\n" + payload);
    try {
      URI uri = new URI(uriString);
      CoapClient client = new CoapClient(uri);
      client.setEndpoint(endPoint);
      CoapResponse response = client.put(payload, MediaTypeRegistry.TEXT_PLAIN);
      if (response.isSuccess()) {
        System.out.println("Yay");
      } else {
        System.out.println("Boo");
      }
      
      client.shutdown();
      
    } catch (URISyntaxException e) {
      // TODO Auto-generated catch block
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
  
  private void watch(String uriString) {
    
    try {
      URI uri = new URI(uriString);
      
      CoapClient client = new CoapClient(uri);
      client.setEndpoint(endPoint);
      CoapHandler handler = new CoapHandler() {
        
        @Override
        public void onLoad(CoapResponse response) {
          System.out.println(response.getResponseText());
          JSONObject json = new JSONObject(response.getResponseText());
          if (json.has("3311")){
            MqttMessage message = new MqttMessage();
            int state = json.getJSONArray("3311").getJSONObject(0).getInt("5850");
            message.setPayload(Integer.toString(state).getBytes());
            message.setRetained(true);
            String topic = "TRÅDFRI/" + json.getString("9001") + "/state/on";
            String topic2 = "TRÅDFRI/" + json.getString("9001") + "/state/dim";
            name2id.put(json.getString("9001"), json.getInt("9003"));
            MqttMessage message2 = new MqttMessage();
            int dim = json.getJSONArray("3311").getJSONObject(0).getInt("5851");
            message2.setPayload(Integer.toString(dim).getBytes());
            message2.setRetained(true);
            try {
              mqttClient.publish(topic, message);
              mqttClient.publish(topic2, message2);
            } catch (MqttException e) {
              // TODO Auto-generated catch block
              e.printStackTrace();
            }
          } else {
            System.out.println("not bulb");
          }
        }
        
        @Override
        public void onError() {
          // TODO Auto-generated method stub
          
        }
      };
      client.observe(handler);
    } catch (URISyntaxException e) {
      // TODO Auto-generated catch block
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
    
  }

  /**
   * @param args
   */
  public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
    String psk = args[0];
    String ip = args[1];
    Main m = new Main(psk, ip);
    
    m.discover();
  }

}

I’ve tagged the code onto the gist as well for now, but I’ll check the whole thing in as a separate project soon.

EDIT: now with it’s own Github repo here

GPIO buttons – Demo stand

I recently got asked to help out building a demo for one of the projects the team has been working on.

The project uses situational awareness to vary the level of authentication needed to carry out different tasks. Rather than make the person using the demo run all over the place to change location or log in and out of various systems we have stubbed out the inputs and needed a way to toggle them locally. The demo runs on a tablet so we wanted something that could sit near by and allow the inputs to be varied.

To do this I thought I’d have a play with a Raspberry Pi and the GPIO pins. The plan was to attach 5 buttons to the toggle the state of the inputs, the buttons have lights that will show the state.

This would have been a perfect use case for the new Raspberry Pi Zero as it only needs 1 USB port and the GPIO pins, but I couldn’t convince any of the guys on the team lucky enough to grab one to give it up.

The chosen buttons where 5 of these:

http://uk.rs-online.com/web/p/push-button-switches/7027140/

I’d uses something very similar in the past for the MQTT Powered Video Walls in IBM Southbank Client Centre.

The first single button prototype worked nicely after I’d worked out what was needed with pull-up resistors for the buttons and current limiting resistors for the LEDs.

Button prototype

Node-RED was set up to read the state of the buttons from the GPIO pints and to update toggle the LED output the same way.

Node-RED flow to read buttons
Node-RED flow to read buttons

To make the demo totally standalone the rPi acts as a WiFi access point that the tablet connects to. It uses this connection to load the demo and to read the updates from the buttons via MQTT over Websockets.

The USB WiFi adapter available was a Edimax EW-7811UN, The default Linux driver for this doesn’t support HostAPD, luckily there is a page with instructions and a github project with a functional version.

Mosquitto 1.4.2 was installed to act as the the MQTT broker and to support MQTT over websockets so the web app could connect directly to get the button updates.

Having finished off the wiring and configuring the rPi the whole thing was mounted in a display board put together by Andy Feltham.

And ended up looking like this, all ready for a overlay with a description and instructions.

Completed Board

Building Bluetooth LE devices

While waiting for my flic.io buttons to turn up I’ve been playing with building my own Bluetooth Low Energy devices.

Since I already had a couple of sensors hooked up to publish their values via MQTT I thought I would try and build a bridge between MQTT and BLE.

I’m using a Raspberry Pi, a Bluetooth 4.0 USB dongle and a NodeJS npm module called bleno.

It turned out to be petty easy, first a short file to set up the BLE service and connect to MQTT:

var util = require('util');
var bleno = require('bleno');
var mqtt = require('mqtt');

var BlenoPrimarySerivce = bleno.PrimaryService;

var TopicCharacteristic = require('./topicCharacteristic');

var config = require("./config");

var client = mqtt.connect(config.broker);

var topicCharacteristic = new TopicCharacteristic(config);

client.on('connect', function(){
  client.subscribe(config.topic);
});

client.on('message',function(topic, message){
  topicCharacteristic.update(message);
});

bleno.on('stateChange', function(state){
  if (state === 'poweredOn') {
    bleno.startAdvertising('mqtt', ['ba42561bb1d2440a8d040cefb43faece']);
  } else {
    bleno.stopAdvertising();
  }
});

bleno.on('advertisingStart', function(error){
  if(!error) {
  	bleno.setServices([
  	  new BlenoPrimarySerivce({
  	  	uuid: 'ba42561bb1d2440a8d040cefb43faece',
  	  	characteristics: [
  	  	  topicCharacteristic
  	  	]
  	  })
  	]);
  }
});

And then something to add the characteristic for the topic:

var util = require('util');
var bleno = require('bleno');

function TopicCharacteristic(config, client) {
	bleno.Characteristic.call(this, {
		uuid: '6bcb06e2747542a9a62a54a1f3ce11e6',
		properties: ['read', 'write', 'notify'],
		descriptors: [
			new bleno.Descriptor({
				uuid: '2901',
				value: 'Topic: ' + config.topic
			})
		]
	});

	this._value = new Buffer(0);
	this._updateValueCallback = null;
	this._client = client;
	this._topic = config.topic;
}

util.inherits(TopicCharacteristic, bleno.Characteristic);

TopicCharacteristic.prototype.onWriteRequest = function(data, offset, withoutResponse, callback) {
	this._value = data;
	client.publish(this._topic, data);
	callback(this.RESULT_SUCCESS);
}


TopicCharacteristic.prototype.onReadRequest = function(offset, callback) {
	callback(this.RESULT_SUCCESS, this._value);
}

TopicCharacteristic.prototype.onSubscribe = function(maxValueSize, updateValueCallback) {
	this._updateValueCallback = updateValueCallback;
}

TopicCharacteristic.prototype.onUnsubscribe = function () {
	this._updateValueCallback = null;
}

TopicCharacteristic.prototype.update = function(value) {
	this._value = value;
	if (this._updateValueCallback) {
		this._updateValueCallback(this._value);
	}
}

module.exports = TopicCharacteristic;

I’ve used 2 randomly generated UUIDs, one for the service and one for the characteristic.

The code should allow you to read the last value published, publish a new value and subscribe to notifications when new values arrive.

I pulled together a quick Android app to subscribe to the notifications and update when a new value is published and it seams to be working well.

The code is all up on Github and on npmjs so feel free to have a play.

You can test it with the Bluez gatttoool.

[hardillb@bagend ~]$ gatttool -b 00:1A:7D:DA:71:15 -I
[00:1A:7D:DA:71:15][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 00:1A:7D:DA:71:15
Connection successful
[00:1A:7D:DA:71:15][LE]> primary
attr handle: 0x0001, end grp handle: 0x0005 uuid: 00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
attr handle: 0x0006, end grp handle: 0x0009 uuid: 00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
attr handle: 0x000a, end grp handle: 0x000e uuid: ba42561b-b1d2-440a-8d04-0cefb43faece
[00:1A:7D:DA:71:15][LE]> characteristics 
handle: 0x0002, char properties: 0x02, char value handle: 0x0003, uuid: 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
handle: 0x0004, char properties: 0x02, char value handle: 0x0005, uuid: 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
handle: 0x0007, char properties: 0x20, char value handle: 0x0008, uuid: 00002a05-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
handle: 0x000b, char properties: 0x1a, char value handle: 0x000c, uuid: 6bcb06e2-7475-42a9-a62a-54a1f3ce11e6
[00:1A:7D:DA:71:15][LE]> char-write-req 0x000d 0300
Characteristic value was written successfully
Notification handle = 0x000c value: 42 61 72 
Notification handle = 0x000c value: 48 65 6c 6c 6f 57 6f 72 6c 64 
Notification handle = 0x000c value: 54 65 73 74 69 6e 67 20 31 32 33 
[00:1A:7D:DA:71:15][LE]> 
[00:1A:7D:DA:71:15][LE]> quit

The lines that start Notification handle contain the bytes published, in this case

  • Bar
  • HelloWorld
  • Testing 123

Moo Sticker engines fixed

A few years ago I create a web app to allow people to order their own sets of Moo stickers with the MQTT, Node-RED and Owntracks(at the time called MQTTitude) logos.

These worked well with people ordering about 1 pack a month until Moo changed the way they did authentication. I didn’t have time to fix it until today.

I’ve moved the app from being a J2EE app over to one written in NodeJS using express, this along with the change in Moo’s authentication method has made the code a lot shorter and easier to read. I’ve published the new code on github here.

To order a set of stickers click on the appropriate image: